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[{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"e12b3e1f-356d-455e-b061-822fa8ce94f7","Name":"A. Do intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"2ed5c1d3-004e-4c15-9617-e13035917653","Name":"B. Are intelligence services authorized to conduct surveillance for an economic purpose?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"0d5b4514-9a6a-41e7-96b6-0d46b6d2e3a5","Name":"C. Do intelligence services need court orders to intercept calls, emails or other communications?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"926b7afc-ba8e-480f-ac93-4f6c29880479","Name":"Contributing Lawyers","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"6fa935f8-4da2-4317-8ce9-95e9b1d7c6ee","Name":"D. How can intelligence services compel companies to provide access to data?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"b0fb9cd1-ccde-48ed-b659-a9cd15488ad9","Name":"E. Are national intelligence services cooperating and exchanging information with foreign services?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"a2933693-5ab9-40ff-9d4f-32686ab02546","Name":"F. Are data subjects notified of surveillance by intelligence services?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"48391ed1-fc38-45a5-880a-f1d25ad486e9","Name":"G. Do data subjects have a right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"c105ee34-141e-41b1-9159-e322abbcdf34","Name":"H. Are other governmental bodies (Ministry, Parliamentary Committee etc.) notified of (individual) surveillance measures taken by intelligence services?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"344284b1-543c-4392-9b24-38d864e3f6cc","Name":"I. If yes, are the governmental bodies (Question 8) notified ex ante or ex post? Do they have a right to object to the measures?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"8adda80e-df62-4543-842c-4a55e65fc4b6","Name":"J. Are there publicized cases that national intelligence services have violated applicable laws relating to surveillance measures? What were the consequences? Name examples.","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"e78e76ec-9238-4268-b5ce-754bafa64c14","Name":"K. Do law enforcement authorities need court orders to intercept communications?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"dd551cc1-94c4-47b2-935c-c17323ab28be","Name":"L. How can law enforcement authorities compel companies to provide access to data?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"565d18a6-f913-495a-a46f-af2c12f6baf1","Name":"M. Can and do companies challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities? Provide examples.","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"e21443dc-523e-4812-9001-1948469299a6","Name":"N. What privacy rights do individuals have against government agencies and companies if companies share personal data with government?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"f9c9c3b4-cfbe-4936-b20c-969c4f5031a6","Name":"O. Can European data subjects assert privacy rights against U.S. companies and the U.S. government (and vice versa under European laws)?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"e1584494-a5e2-4fa9-bfaa-3867e835dfbc","Name":"P. Are companies liable to data subjects if they disclose data to the government without sufficient legal bases? Provide examples.","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"927b10f2-aaf6-42c2-b3af-f1fb0a1fff7e","Name":"Q. Are data subjects notified if law enforcement accesses their data?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"9d0cfaf2-df40-4970-94d6-b008d21e5d73","Name":"R. Are there any other key points to note about surveillance in this jurisdiction, whether by intelligence services or law enforcement?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]}]

Baker McKenzie’s Global Surveillance Comparison Map April 2016

The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) raised the question whether the level of data protection in the USA is adequate and equivalent to the European Economic Area (EEA). The CJEU did not answer this question in its judgment of October 6, 2015, but noted concerns regarding reports of indiscriminate mass surveillance by the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the United States.[1] Since then, the EU Commission has published a revised draft adequacy decision relating to the United States data protection level and a proposed new "EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Program," which is accompanied by assurances by a number of U.S. government authorities regarding privacy protections relating to surveillance programs.[2]

At the same time, other institutions in the EU and scholars have analysed the state of surveillance laws in individual jurisdictions within the EEA and elsewhere. They uniformly found comparisons difficult, as actual practices of intelligence authorities are cloaked in secrecy and laws are complex and fragmented in this area.[3] Due to constitutional limitations on the EU's jurisdiction to legislate matters of national security, the legal situation in the EEA member states is not very uniform. For example, in some EEA member states, senior police or military officers can issue search warrants.[4] EU institutions have called for improvements in the U.S. as well as in the EEA.[5]

Companies around the world are confronted with questions on how to comply with different jurisdictions' laws and data access requests. Users and providers of cloud services, Software-as-a-Service and other services have to factor in government surveillance and data access practices of different countries into their business and location plans. With our surveillance law survey and heat map, we intend to contribute a global overview with broad jurisdictional scope to the discussion and corporate planning processes.

See our heat maps here:



Of course, the situation regarding individual data access requests and responses is more nuanced than a comparative overview survey can address. Therefore, companies cannot rely on our overview as legal advice regarding a particular situation and have to continue to assess their own individual situation based on the pertinent facts and circumstances. Please contact us with any questions or suggestions.


[1] CJEU C-362/14 Schrems v. Data Protection Commissioner), 6.10.2015, #31.
[2] http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/files/privacy-shield-adequacy-decision_en.pdf.
[3] Cate/Dempsey/Rubinstein, Systematic government access to private-sector data, 2 International Data Privacy Law, 215 (2012); Schwartz, Systematic government access to private-sector data in Germany, 2 International Data Privacy Law, 289 (2012); Brown, Government access to private-sector data in the United Kingdom, 2 International Data Privacy Law, 230 (2012). Freiwald/ Métille, Reforming Surveillance Law: the Swiss Model, 28 Berkeley Tech. L. J., 1261 (2013).
[4] See Study of the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Surveillance by intelligence services: fundamental rights safeguards and remedies in the EU: Mapping Member States’ legal frameworks (2015), http://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2015/surveillance-intelligence-services": A comparison between US and EU data protection legislation for law enforcement purposes, www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/536459/IPOL_STU(2015)536459_EN.pdf.
[5]See studies cited in footnote 38.

Contacts

Lothar Determann
Partner, Palo Alto
+650 856 5533
Brian Hengesbaugh
Partner, Chicago
+1 312 861 3077
Dyann Heward-Mills
Partner, London
+44 20 7919 1269
Joachim Scherer
Partner, Frankfurt
+49 69 2 99 08 189
Ian Walden
Of Counsel, London
+44 20 7919 1247
 
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Do intelligence services operate surveillance programs to protect national security?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"2ed5c1d3-004e-4c15-9617-e13035917653","Name":"B. Are intelligence services authorized to conduct surveillance for an economic purpose?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"0d5b4514-9a6a-41e7-96b6-0d46b6d2e3a5","Name":"C. Do intelligence services need court orders to intercept calls, emails or other communications?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"926b7afc-ba8e-480f-ac93-4f6c29880479","Name":"Contributing Lawyers","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"6fa935f8-4da2-4317-8ce9-95e9b1d7c6ee","Name":"D. How can intelligence services compel companies to provide access to data?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"b0fb9cd1-ccde-48ed-b659-a9cd15488ad9","Name":"E. Are national intelligence services cooperating and exchanging information with foreign services?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"a2933693-5ab9-40ff-9d4f-32686ab02546","Name":"F. Are data subjects notified of surveillance by intelligence services?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"48391ed1-fc38-45a5-880a-f1d25ad486e9","Name":"G. Do data subjects have a right to court review of surveillance measures taken by intelligence services?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"c105ee34-141e-41b1-9159-e322abbcdf34","Name":"H. Are other governmental bodies (Ministry, Parliamentary Committee etc.) notified of (individual) surveillance measures taken by intelligence services?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"344284b1-543c-4392-9b24-38d864e3f6cc","Name":"I. If yes, are the governmental bodies (Question 8) notified ex ante or ex post? Do they have a right to object to the measures?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"8adda80e-df62-4543-842c-4a55e65fc4b6","Name":"J. Are there publicized cases that national intelligence services have violated applicable laws relating to surveillance measures? What were the consequences? Name examples.","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"e78e76ec-9238-4268-b5ce-754bafa64c14","Name":"K. Do law enforcement authorities need court orders to intercept communications?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"dd551cc1-94c4-47b2-935c-c17323ab28be","Name":"L. How can law enforcement authorities compel companies to provide access to data?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"565d18a6-f913-495a-a46f-af2c12f6baf1","Name":"M. Can and do companies challenge orders to provide personal data to law enforcement authorities? Provide examples.","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"e21443dc-523e-4812-9001-1948469299a6","Name":"N. What privacy rights do individuals have against government agencies and companies if companies share personal data with government?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"f9c9c3b4-cfbe-4936-b20c-969c4f5031a6","Name":"O. Can European data subjects assert privacy rights against U.S. companies and the U.S. government (and vice versa under European laws)?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"e1584494-a5e2-4fa9-bfaa-3867e835dfbc","Name":"P. Are companies liable to data subjects if they disclose data to the government without sufficient legal bases? Provide examples.","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"927b10f2-aaf6-42c2-b3af-f1fb0a1fff7e","Name":"Q. Are data subjects notified if law enforcement accesses their data?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]},{"HandbookId":"3c4dbded-4afe-4d94-9cbb-354640baf198","Id":"9d0cfaf2-df40-4970-94d6-b008d21e5d73","Name":"R. Are there any other key points to note about surveillance in this jurisdiction, whether by intelligence services or law enforcement?","SortOrder":0,"Synonyms":[]}]}
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